PTR Comments

– Have a summary of lesson as a hand out for student

– Utilize aspects of developmental teaching – have student arrive at the right answer – you lead him

– Have radio com’s written out for student

– Have a watch and a folded map ready for student

– Pay particular attention to presentation on aileron drag, rolling around a point as a final demo after initial

– Always show student what the A/C wants to do to better understand control

– Demonstrate first then explain why and how

– You fly he navigates, you navigate ask questions, he flies

– Aileron drag demo – 2000 RPM nose slightly high

– Don’t get attitudes mixed up with movements

– Aileron drag only when moving the ailerons.

Nose up like climbing a hill

S/L: Road maintained heading and alt. Allow a/c to drift to demo wind.

Track and heading are two different things

Trim game, pulling a pulley up, putting coins in a gumball machine

Turns: Centrifugal force, lift leg to demo Gs.

No oscillations with back pressure

Rudder when moving ailerons, then neutral

– Steep turn – Canyon: Power off, through 30 bank add full power go to 60 degrees of bank

Min radius: 20 flap pwr assist 45 degrees of bank through 360

Comm 180 turn reversal: Begin roll out 20 degrees prior to heading

Collision Avoidance: Power off, 2G pull up 90 bank and let nose drop to prevent stall

Slow flight: Controls are unresponsive, not sloppy

emphasize rudder in slow flight that its still responsive

Stall: With nose up trim power off at stall allow student to see that a/c does not want to stall. (Have nose up trim)

Spin: Lever arm explanation of C of G.

Road align for spin

Rudder speeds up wing to help unstall

All else fails ball and T/C

> Hard grip overcontrolling

> Instruments: LEast an hour on instruments

physical body on instruments, increase everything, essential manoeuvre

15 to 20 minutes max at a time, give a break

visual recovery for attitudes and movements before actually doing it under the hood


Soft field: emphasize speed on approach, sit in aircraft while you lower tail to see when nose is too high

“Just”  lift nose on t/o run, too much and too much drag, too little no good

Speed on approach until flare

Spirals: Get into it by not applying backpressure

Nose up, no power until a low airspeed

Emphasize spin spiral differences

XC: OVHD departure point

Show 10 degree drift method and 1-60 rule to regain track

Emphasize VTA and VNC chart use

X/CTRY Use flt log to record calculations. Dist off/dist travelled X 60 + Dist off/dist to go X 60 = correction to destination

Review EMERG procedures as they pertain to THIS aircraft

Show bounce and how to recover, as well as balloon.

1st landing show low and over and attitude. Allow aircraft to drift to show how and why to counteract

Know which side the wind is coming from touch down on correct wheel into wind

Allow student time on final to know he is going straight with rudder and aileron inputs to maintain centerline

Circuit work, demo landing attitude with student in cockpit, fly perfect circuit 1st time

Low and over slow flight 6 – 12 feet AGL

Allow a/c to drift if xwind and show how to correct

Have student fly, discuss and show too high too low on final and how to correct.

Point out traffic, use heading ref’s as a guide, experience or show the balloon or bounce

Forced: Break student into segments , 1st time have student glide a/c only, introduce cockpit management as the student improves

Precautionary: if no time constraints, have student extended downwind to give more time to set up for low approach

All of this information on pilot training and flight training in Canada is also available at

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