24 – Instrument PP

In this exercise and lesson you will continue developing your skills in flying the aircraft with reference to instruments only and learn how to fly the aircraft under partial panel conditions.

Planned Activities

• Exercises 24 Unusual Attitudes

Reference Material


• AIM AIR 3.0

• Ground School and PGI Notes 


• Study the Abnormal and Emergency sections in the POH

• Review the POH (chapter 7 aircraft systems) to develop a better understanding of how or why a malfunction would occur or to understand how different systems affect the aircraft’s instrument indications.

• Review the FTM and PGI notes for full panel instrument flying.

• Review human factors associated when flying with reference to instruments only (Hint: look in the AIM).

• Review operation of the aircraft flight instruments (6 pack + compass) – how they operate and the errors associated with each.

• Be able to answer the following questions:

1. What would you see on the instrument panel if your primary vacuum has failed?

2. Which instruments are powered by the vacuum?

3. Which instrument becomes your new primary instrument (ie. becomes the new “attitude indicator”)? What information does it give us?

4. What performance instruments give you the information you need for straight and level flight?

5. During a climb, you can check that the climb attitude is set on the attitude indicator by checking which instrument?

• Write down your questions!

Tips/Rules of Thumb/Theory 

• Always ensure that you use the instruments that give you indirect information to verify that your primary (direct information) instruments are reliable.

• 100 rpm = 5 knots and 100 rpm = 100 feet/min

• Climb: APT and Descent: PAT

• As you approach your desired altitude lead the leveling off by approximately 10% of your rate of climb as a rule of thumb)

• When descending at constant airspeed and constant rate, use attitude to control airspeed and power to control the rate of descent.

• Regularly check that the aircraft is properly trimmed (momentarily let go of the controls and monitor for pitch changes).

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