CRM Toolbox

In our endeavour to keep improving the material and tools available for Crews and Trainers, we put together many comprehensive and concise teachings of the Human Factor CRM Toolbox, used in CRM training and in its evaluation.

The present guide will provide definitions for the Toolbox skills using mainly ICAO terminology. It will also give direction on the use of the Toolbox for the assessment and the investigation of human factors.

The terminology used in the Toolbox has been selected carefully to fit either the CRM program or the ICAO standard. The chosen terminology and supporting definitions were selected after taking into account various factors, such as; the existing CRM program, past efforts of the Human Factors Team instructing CRM concepts, ICAO and IATA used terminology or definitions and the existing science available to support the decisions made.

What is the Toolbox? 

We needed a good visual symbol to house the skills that are used in CRM training. We choose the Toolbox because it is easy to remember and evokes many common traits within the CRM skill sets. A skilled carpenter needs good tools and the craftsmanship to be able to use those tools properly. This is the same for crew members.


What is the Toolbox used for? 

Crews are trained in the use of the Toolbox skills. Instructors and investigators also use the Toolbox skills to assess the crew’s human performance.


What’s in the Toolbox? 

The Toolbox contains six groups of non-technical skills called behavioural performance markers. These markers were developed using various existing systems. The skill categories constitute the different categories of CRM skills used by the Human Factors Program. The six categores are then further broken down into their respective CRM tools and into Observable Behaviours.

The six categories are:

  • Communication 
  • Situational Awareness 
  • Decision Making 
  • Workload Management 
  • Teamwork 
  • Leadership 


The Human Factors program considers all categories and tools to be equally important and interdependent. For example; Proactive Decision Making requires good Situational Awareness and good Situational Awareness requires good Communication, and so on.

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