Skills for TEM

There are various skills in CRM that we can develop to manage errors whether we’re single pilot or multi-crew. Understanding and embracing the skills is a very key and effective way to preventing errors.


Communication is the exchange of ideas and information in an effective and timely manner so messages are received and understood. This is demonstrated by maintaining the feedback loop using standard calls and procedures and the ability to actively listen in order to receive messages accurately. These skills are further advanced when the ability to interpret non-verbal communication such as body language and voice tone.


Providing effective briefings is a skill required to ensure that all crew members are aware of goals and objectives. Successful briefings will also ensure that a productive working environment is present. Using clear and concise briefings through various stages of a flight, the crew will be informed of the course of action to be taken. Standard briefings are followed and all required information is discussed.

Decision Making

The process of determining and implementing a course of action and evaluating the outcome. Defining the problem, assessing the time and risk factors, influences the decision making process. By selecting a proper course of action from options available at the time, the crew members will demonstrate the ability to interpret cues in a timely manner, remain situationally aware, deal with error- producing sources of difficulty (such as stress and high workload) and re-evaluate the outcome of a decision.


Leadership is the ability to inspire others to perform at high levels of professionalism to ensure a safe and efficient flight. Leadership involves taking the initiative to provide guidance and promote teamwork. Providing crew motivation, creating crew synergy and inspiring others to perform at high levels of professionalism.

Monitor and Feedback

Monitoring and feedback occurs when each crew member back-up the other and gives appropriate feedback of information. Effective monitor and feedback plays a vital role in error detection and correction. After careful observation and assessment, information should be passed to other crew members to promote an optimum level of awareness. Monitoring all aspects related to a crew member’s duties and providing applicable input when required.

Preparation and Planning

Preparation and planning involves a crew organizing all available resources to stay ahead of operational requirements and implementing strategies to deal with future demands or requirements. Demonstrated when future requirements are considered and the crew implements a strategy to achieve the desired result. Preparing for operational demands and their effects, planning for future demands and/or requirements are part of preparation and planning.

Situational Awareness

Situational awareness is the accurate perception of the factors and conditions affecting the aircraft and the flight crew during a specific time period. Achieved through accurate and timely perception of conditions, should situational awareness be lost, crews will demonstrate the ability to apply techniques and strategies to regain individual and crew awareness.

Workload Management

Workload management means planning, prioritizing and delegating tasks to ensure an equitable workload distribution. Planning and prioritizing means decisions are made to sequence present or anticipated workloads. Delegating is assigning tasks, responsibility and/or authority to other to ensure the workload is distributed equally. It is the responsibility of each crew member to ensure task saturation is prevented.

Crew Performance

Crew performance exists when all crew members contribute their best effort towards the crew’s success. Effective performance maintains a synergy where the result of the group actually exceeds the sum of the individual performances and the crew members. Breakdown or threats to performance are addressed appropriately and timely to ensure it is not degraded.

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