Threats are events or error present in the operational environment that can adversely affect flight safety by increasing the operational complexity of the flight and normally originate outside the pilot’s influence. Active management of threats is required to maintain adequate safety margins for the flight. By understanding various threats, we are more likely to

There are two types of threats: External and Internal Threats

Internal Threats are those that affect the crew or individual and may be difficult to detect.

  • Operational Pressure
  • Fatigue and Stress
  • Boredom or Complacency
  • Lack of Assertiveness
  • Hazardous Attitudes
  • Lack of Knowledge, Skill, Recency or Proficiency
  • Low Experience
  • Physical Condition

External Threats  are part of the operational environment

  • Workload
  • Distractions
  • System Malfunctions/MEL
  • Adverse Weather
  • Unfamiliar Airport
  • Time Pressure
  • Missed Approach/diversion
  • Automation anomaly
  • ATC/Dispatch events
  • Hazards
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